NCRB's Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India report shows there were over 37,000 suicides for marriage-related reasons from 2016 to 2020, but only 7% of them were due to divorce.
Of the 7,239 marriage-related suicides in 2020, about 2,018 (26 per cent) were because of dowry related issues. Of these, 1,749 were women, and 249 were men. The previous year, the total number of dowry related deaths was 3 per cent lower, at 1,956.
In contrast, other marriage-related causes for suicide — such as divorce or extra-marital affairs, for example — claimed the lives of more men than women.
In 2020, divorce pushed 287 men to commit suicide, which is a little more than the number of women — 264. In the case of extramarital affairs, 724 men committed suicide, while the number for women was 636, or 14 per cent less.
Pre-matrimonial due diligence investigations and post-matrimonial dispute investigations are increasingly being handled by professional investigators. Earlier, parents, friends or family members used to verify the credibility and authenticity of the prospective bride/groom from their informal sources before deciding on a nuptial. However, the scenario is fast changing with matrimonial alliances being prone to forgery, cheating and legal disputes, cost of which is very high and damage irreparable.
Therefore, to ensure the right alliance, many parents of the bride/groom and the prospective partners are hiring professional investigators to conduct due diligence. One key reason behind the rise of matrimonial investigations is the onset of online dating generation and social media interactions, which come with their own merits and demerits.
Background Verification : KYC verification, character and reputation checks of family (discreet and confidential), educational verification
Financial Stability : employment verification, job profile, business details, working status, income details, asset profile, liabilities, loans/mortgages etc.
Legal checks : Past criminal record, police and court records
Lifestyle : General habits and lifestyle, travel patterns, social media activity
Undisclosed/ concealed previous Marriage/Divorce/Children: A pre-marital investigation regarding concealed previous marriage/ divorce or other relationships can avoid future complications.
Under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act (PWDVA), 2005, any action whether mental or physical which causes any harm or coerce the aggrieved or her relatives for the demand of dowry or gives threats to do such actions or otherwise causes her any harm or injury. These actions include mental, physical, social and financial abuses.
PWDVA, 2005 protects women in cohabitation with men. This includes both married women as well as women in live-in-relationship.
Yes, an aggrieved woman can claim maintenance under section 20 of the PWDVA, 2005.
Under section 21 of the PWDVA Act, 2005, an aggrieved woman can claim the custody of child and under section 22 she can claim compensation for her sufferings.
Under PWDVA, 2005 the woman who is in cohabitation with the man can claim maintenance for herself and children. Under section 125 of CrPC, 1973, the wife can claim maintenance; also, the children, both legitimate and illegitimate, can claim maintenance from their father; as well as parents who are neglected by their children, can claim maintenance.
Yes, irrespective of their religion any woman can claim maintenance.
Yes, under Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 a husband can claim maintenance from his wife.
Under Section 125(4) of the CrPC 1973, a wife living in adultery; or without any sufficient reason living separately with her husband; or if both husband and wife living separately by mutual consent.
Yes, an aggrieved person can claim maintenance both under section 125 of CrPC 1973, and PWDVA, 2005.
Yes, a wife who is educated and qualified but not able to maintain herself is entitled for maintenance.
He can file for judicial separation under section 10 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.
A husband can file for divorce on the basis of cruelty, desertion, adultery, conversion, mental disorder, communicable disease or renunciation of the world by his wife.
For desertion it is 2 years and for presumption of death it is 7 years.
Yes, as they are regarded as mental cruelty.
An agreement made before marriage which generally includes that in eventuality of divorce who will have custody of children and how, what will be the monetary liabilities and how will the property and assets of the parties be divided amongst other specific contracts.
As Indian law considered marriage as a sacred institution and not a contract, prenuptial agreements are not enforceable in India. However, section 40 of the Divorce Act 1869 and the Goa Civil Code 1867 recognises prenuptial agreement. Muslim personal law also recognizes ‘mehr’ which is decided before the marriage of two muslim persons, which resembles the objectives and nature of a pre-nuptial agreements.
If any party to the prenuptial agreement, which is made outside India, initiates divorce proceedings in India, that agreement has no effect and can not be enforced.
Bigamy is an act of remarrying during the subsistence of the valid marriage. Under section 494 of IPC, 1860 if any person having a husband or wife marries again, such marriage is void, and such husband or wife shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term of 7 years and fine.
A person whose spouse is dead OR first marriage has been dissolved by a decree of divorce OR declared void by a decree of nullity.
Yes, a man remarrying with the consent of the first wife is guilty of bigamy.
Only aggrieved person can complain for bigamy. In case of an aggrieved wife her father can also make a complaint.
Second wife has no legal rights of maintenance or property rights over her husband's ancestral property. However, she can claim maintenance if she can prove no knowledge of her husband’s first marriage.
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Pre-matrimonial due diligence and post-matrimonial investigations are increasingly being handled by professional investigators. Earlier, parents, friends or family members used to verify the credibility and authenticity of the prospective bride/groom from their informal sources before deciding on a nuptial. However, the scenario is fast changing with matrimonial alliances being prone to forgery, cheating and legal disputes, cost of which is very high and damage irreparable.
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In recent days the term ‘moonlighting’ has become a hot topic especially in the IT industry. The IT giant Wipro recently fired 300 of its employees for moonlighting, while other big companies like IBM, TCS, Infosys have raised concerns about their employees doing a side job after working hours. The debate over ‘moonlighting’ doesn’t seem to settle, with divided opinions and lack of clarity, whether it's a moral, ethical or legal issue, or all of these. But the debate has definitely triggered the need for robust due diligence mechanism, enforcement of Business Code of Conduct, and internal investigations especially in the post-Covid-19 times, when the corporates are facing challenges to monitor employee misconduct, the increasing risk of fraud, financial and reputational loss, and of course the legal implications of terminating employee contracts.
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